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百个双语词汇㊲专项扶贫
发布时间:2021-04-25     作者:   分享到:
专项扶贫

Special Poverty Alleviation Programs

专项扶贫是指专门针对贫困人口和贫困问题而设计实施的开发式扶贫政策措施。20世纪80年代初期,国家开始启动实施三西农业建设计划和以工代赈计划。此后,专项扶贫是指依托发展资金、以工代赈资金、少数民族发展资金、三西农业建设专项补助资金、扶贫贷款贴息资金等财政专项扶贫资金而组织实施的扶贫工作。

Special poverty alleviation programs are development-oriented, especially designed and implemented to help the poor tackle poverty problems.In the early 1980s, the state launched an agricultural development program and a work-relief plan for the poor counties in Gansu Province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Later, special programs were related to poverty alleviation work supported by development funds, work-relief funds, development funds for minority ethnic groups, agricultural development subsidies, and government-subsided discount loans for poverty alleviation projects.

与行业扶贫、社会扶贫所不同的是,专项扶贫的主要特点在于:(1)专项扶贫所需资金,主要来源于中央和地方预算安排的财政扶贫资金;(2)专项扶贫的实施一般采用项目形式(或单一项目,或综合性项目);(3)专项扶贫项目实施,原则上要求到村到户,使真正的贫困村、贫困户直接受益;(4)组织实施专项扶贫的行政机构是各级政府扶贫开发领导小组及其办公室,同时还包括各级发展和改革委员会、财政部门等。

As distinct from poverty alleviation through business development or with social assistance, special programs have the following features: (1)The money needed mainly comes from the poverty relief funds appropriated from central and local budgets; (2)Single or comprehensive projects are usually conducted to boost alleviation; (3)The projects must be undertaken in the villages and by the households to ensure the truly impoverished are the direct beneficiaries; and(4)The organizations in charge of project implementation include poverty alleviation leading groups and their offices, development and reform commissions, and financial departments under all levels of government.

2011,中共中央、国务院颁布实施《中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2011—2020),正式将扶贫开发工作划分为专项扶贫、行业扶贫、社会扶贫三大块,其中专项扶贫主要包括易地扶贫搬迁、整村推进、以工代赈、产业扶贫、就业促进等内容。2015,《中共中央 国务院关于打赢脱贫攻坚战的决定》进一步提出,强化政府责任,引领市场、社会协同发力,鼓励先富帮后富,构建专项扶贫、行业扶贫、社会扶贫互为补充的大扶贫格局。

The Outline for Development-oriented Poverty Alleviation of China’s Rural Areas (2011-2020), released in 2011, defines development-oriented poverty alleviation as special programs, corporate support, and social assistance. Special programs include relocation, village-based poverty alleviation, work-relief, business development, and employment improvement.The Decision on Winning the Battle Against Poverty, issued in 2015, emphasizes the responsibilities of the government and the roles of the market and social assistance, and encourages those who have become better-off to help those still lagging behind, so as to build synergy by integrating special programs, corporate support and social assistance.